Luxor and Thebes :-
Modern luxor grew out of the ruins of Thebes, it was the capital of ancient Egypt's New kingdom (1550-900 BC). Luxor has returned to prominence as the tourist Mecca of the Nile Valley. The exciting excavations that were led by European archaeologists in the 19th and early 20th centuries, especially the discovery of Tutankhamun's tomb, aroused international interest in the town and visitors have been coming to marvel at the amazing concentration of ruins here ever since .
SIGHTS AT A GLANCE :-
â˜… Karnak temples:-
After the pyramids of Giza,Karnak is Egypt's most important pharaonic site. dedicated to the sacred triade of thebes
♥Amun,the king of the gods
From its modest 11th-Dynasty beginning, pharaoh after pharaoh added to and changed the existing buildings, seeking to make their mark on the country's most important temple.
The 100-acre site comprises a fantastic array of temples, chaples, pylons and obeliskes, all testifying to the importance of Thebes.
No expense was spared and during the 19th Dynasty some 80,000 men worked in the temple as labourers,guards,priests and servants.
The temple lay buried under sand for more than 1,000 years before excavation work began in mid-19th century.
â˜… Luxor Temple:-
Dominating the banks of the Nile in the centre of town, luxor temple is an elegant example of pharaonic temple architecture.
Dedicated to the theban triad of Amun,Mut and Khonsu, the temple largely completed by the 18th Dynasty pharaoh Amenhotep III and added to during the reign of Ramses II in the 19th Dynasty.
The temple is approached by an avenue of sphinxes, which once stretched all the way from luxor to karnak, almost 3 km away.
Fronting the entrance to the temple, the gigantic first pylon is decorated with scenes of Ramses II's victory over the Hittites in the battle of Qadesh. Two seated colossi of Ramses and a huge 25-m high pink granite obelisk flank the gateway to the temple.
â˜… Avenue of Sphinxes :-
Once stretched all the way from luxor temple to Karnak, almost 3 km away.
â˜… Valley of the kings:-
The remote, barren valley of the kings was the necropolis of the New kingdom pharaohs.
By digging their tombs deep into the theban Hills, pharaohs from Tuthmosis I (1550 BC ) on hoped to stop robbers stealing the priceless possessions buried with them.
It was an unsuccessful strategy. Despite their hidden locations, every burial chamber was raided except for those of Yuya and Tuya, and Tutankhamun, discovered by Howard Carter in 1922, its glorious treasures still intact. But for all that, the structures themselves remain, their dramatic corridors and burial chambers stunningly adorned with symbolic accounts of the journey through the underworld and ritual paintings to assist the pharaohs in the afterlife.
Sixty-three tombs have been found in the Valley of the Kings.
Your ticket allows you to visit three of the tombs.
â˜… Hatshepsut temple :-
Against its stark mountainous backdrop, the partly rock-hewn Mortuary Temple of Hatshepsut at Deir al Bahari is a breath-taking sight.
It was designed by Queen Hatsheput's architect Senenmut in the 18th Dynasty and is an extraordinary monument which rises from the desert plain in series of imposing terraces.
â˜… Valley of the Queens :-
Named by Champollion, the Valley of the Queens lies to the southwest of the Valley of the Kings and holds the tombs of many royal wives and children. Although it was used as a burial site in the 18th Dynasty, it was only from the reign of the 19th-Dynasty pharaoh Ramses I that royal wives were laid to rest here. Of the nearly 80 tombs populating the Valley.
â˜… Medinet Habu :-
Although second only to Karnak in size and detail, the complex is dominated by the huge mortuary temple of Ramses lll.
Ramses lll's many military campaigns are recorded in detail on the temple's pylons and walls. In the second court, colourful reliefs depicting religious festivals are well preserved, partly thanks to the early Christians who converted the area into a church and covered the offending images with plaster.
â˜… The Ramesseum :-
Pharaoh Ramses II, ruler of Egypt for 63 years in the 19th Dynasty, built his mortuary temple, the Ramesseum, as a statement of his eternal greatness and to impress his subjects. The huge complex, which took more than 20 years to complete, now lies largely in ruins. Dedicated to Amun, it once boasted an 18-m high, 1000-tonne colossus of Ramses, parts of which lie scattered around the site. The complex also included a smaller temple dedicated to Ramses's mother in law Tuya and his wife Nefertari, as well as a royal palace and storehouses.
â˜… Tombs of the Nobles :-
Extending over a large area to the south of the valley of the kings, the Tombs of the Nobles and high officials, mainly from the New kingdom. While the royal tombs were hidden away in a secluded valley, these tombs are closer to the surface of the hills overlooking the Nile
Because of the poor quality of the limestone here, the tombs are painted and there are few carved reliefs. Vivid artworks cover the walls, providing an invaluable insight into daily life in the New kingdom.
Tomb of Ramose :-governor of thebes before and during Akhenaten's reign, has reliefs showing both the old style of worship and the worship of Aten imposed by the heretic pharaoh.
â˜… Deir al-Medina :-
The craftsmen, servants and labourers who worked on the royal tombs lived in the village of Deir al-Medina, also known as the Workmen's Village, to the south of the Valley of the Queens.
They were buried in the nearby necropolis, in tombs that were intricately decorated and surmounted by a small pyramid.
â˜… Colossi of Memnon :-
Soaring 18 m into the sky, the two enthroned statues of Amenhotep III are the first monuments most visitors see on arriving in the West Bank